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An explanatory list of foreign words that enter into and form component vi PREFACE. (See below under ICE AGE.) But even when depressions exist it is necessary that there should be a sufficient supply of water in order that lakes may be formed. In arid regions there are many relative depressions, INTRODUCTION.
parts of many place-names is also added, for the purpose of enabling the reader to find the real meaning of such names. Seas Mountains Plains Rivers and Lakes Geology and Mineralogy Climate Vegetation Zoology Ethnography and Language Historical Sketch Political Divisions, THE UNITED KINGDOM, England and AVales, Scotland, Ireland. xli and even in some cases depressions below sea-level, which remain constantly dry or at most are liable to be temporarily flooded.
It is easier to obtain data for estimating the rate at which deltas may be expected to increase, on the supposition that deposition will go on at the present rate for an indefinite period; and one such estimate may be mentioned.
The most celebrated and perhaps the grandest falls in the world are the falls of Niagara (p.
This is followed by a description of the continent of Europe as a whole, its superficial configuration, rivers and lakes, geology and minerals, climate, vegetation and zoology, people and political divisions. In dry regions, as in Central Asia, chains of lakes have sometimes been formed by the partial drying up of river-beds.
The main body of the work opens with an account of the Polar regions both of the north and south. In other cases the cutting off of portions of the sea arises Fig. Many lakes have been so formed along the coast of France between the Garonne and the Pyrenees, and likewise between the Pyrenees and the Rhone, and many others near the lower course of the Danube, where the estuaries of several rivers that once ran directly into the Black Sea have thus been converted into inland lakes.
With regard to this last topic it is to be noted that the historical sketch appended to each section deals only with that part of the history that may properly be held to belong to geography, and in many cases all that could be attempted within our limits of space was to give the date from which the part of the earth treated of has formed a separate political division. 689); and sometimes their basins are due to barriers that have been thrown across the mouths of gorges or shallower depressions.
The different countries and regions composing that continent are then de- scribed separately, and under each the same topics are treated in greater detail, while in addition notices are supplied relating to trade and com- merce, means of communication, government and defence, the chief towns, and the historical vicissitudes of the territories. Very often lakes occupy the craters of extinct volcanoes (see p.