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The Agriculture and Climate Risk Enterprise (ACRE) is the largest index insurance programme in Africa in which the farmers pay a market premium.It is projected to reach 3 million farmers across 10 countries in Eastern and Southern Africa by 2018 (ACRE 2014).The arid and semi-arid lands of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia are regularly hit by regional droughts.These can have particularly severe impacts on pastoralist households who have almost non-existent communication and transport options and who depend on livestock for food, income, and as their main form of savings.

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A few common features appear to have contributed to recent progress within these case studies: explicitly targeting obstacles to improving farmer income; integration of insurance with other development interventions; giving farmers a voice in the design of products; investing in local capacity; and investing in science-based index development.Since the livestock in East African pastoral systems depend almost entirely on forage for their nutrition, NDVI serves as an indicator of the vegetation available in the area and is thus linked to livestock mortality.In Kenya, an index was calibrated using data on livestock mortality, collected monthly since 2000.In short, women, whether their preference is local, military or whatever, have their pick from their late teens to about mid thirties.Just to drive home the point, here are the population pyramids for Norfolk and then Virginia Beach.

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